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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 28-32

Prevalence of carotid artery calcifications in Riyadh from digital panoramic radiographs and its relationship with cardiovascular disorders: A retrospective cross-sectional study

1 Dentist, College of Dentistry, Riyadh Elm University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2 Department of OMFS and Diagnostic Sciences, Riyadh Elm University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Alaa Ziad Sinjab
College of Dentistry, Riyadh Elm University, P.O. Box 8963, Riyadh 11492
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/sjos.SJOralSci_78_20

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Introduction: Atherosclerosis of the external division of the carotid artery contributes to approximately 20% among all the reasons leading to stroke. The strategies for the prevention of stroke remain underutilized despite the advancements in healthcare. Dentists can contribute in the prevention of stroke by identifying patients at risk from the details revealed in radiographic imaging. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of carotid artery calcifications (CACs) detected on digital panoramic radiographs in Riyadh and its relationship with cardiovascular disorders. Methodology: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Riyadh Elm University using digital panoramic radiographs. A total of 158 panoramic radiographs were analyzed with patients aged ≥18 years. The presence of CAC was determined and confirmed by an oral radiologist. Medical records were retrieved and collected from the digital data base after ethical approval. Chi-square test of independence was performed to examine the relationship between variables (age, gender, and medical problems) and the presence of calcification. Results and Discussion: From the data scrutinized, 158 panoramic radiographs were included for the study. 111 radiographs did not have any calcifications. 47 radiographs depicted the presence of soft tissue calcification, out of which 20 radiographs were of CAC and the remaining contributed to other soft tissue calcifications seen in the neck region. There was significant correlation between age and calcification, P = 0.003 with the highest prevalence in 40–69 years. Correlation between gender, CAC, and medically compromised conditions associated with cardiovascular systems was not significant. Conclusion: The prevalence of CAC in the Riyadh population was 1.12%. CAC comprised of 12.66% among all the soft tissue calcifications of the neck in this study. Patients are not aware of the underlying cardiovascular risk that CAC can pose. Dentists' diagnostic efficiency in analyzing CAC, which is a risk factor for cardiovascular events, can reduce further morbidities or mortality rates enhancing the quality of life and life span.

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