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   Table of Contents - Current issue
September-December 2022
Volume 9 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 145-209

Online since Saturday, December 31, 2022

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AEEDC 2023 International Dental Conference: Experience, expertise, and excellence p. 145
Abdullah R Alshammery
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Parental perceptions of dental health in children with neurological disorders: Cross-sectional tertiary care center assessment p. 146
Anas S Alyazidi, Sara Y Muthaffar, Arwa Y Muthaffar, Osama Y Muthaffar, Mahmoud A Gaddoury
Introduction: Neurological disorders present in different age groups. In children, the spectrum of neurological diseases is multifactorial and varies between motor delay, speech delay, cognitive delay, and global developmental delay. Dental caries constitutes a public health problem that impacts approximately 80% of children nationwide. Aims: This study aims to evaluate the magnitude of dental problems in children with neurological disorders. Materials and Methods: An epidemiological investigation using a cross-sectional design was conducted. A total number of 2451 electronic surveys were sent to parents of children attending the pediatric neurology clinic. Children who attended the clinic from January 2017 to January 1, 2021, were included. Six hundred and seventy-five parents (28%) answered the survey. Statistical Analysis Used: For statistical analysis, IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows (Version 21.0; IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) software was used. Categorical variables were presented using numbers, associated frequencies, and percentages (%). Categorical variables were correlated using the Chi-square test. Results and Discussion: A total number of 2451 surveys were distributed. The response rate was 28%. A total of 675 patients were labeled eligible. Patients' gender characteristics were as follows: 389 (58%) were male while 286 (42%) were female. Patients were distributed into two age groups, a group aged <7 years old and 7–14 years old. Conclusions: Neurological disorders proved to be a burden on patients with dental caries and their families. Socioeconomic status was an important aspect in the families' ability to manage dental caries. Patients with complicated seizures and require multiple drugs were more prone to worse states of oral hygiene. Multidisciplinary care that combines dentists and medical physicians is required.
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Cross-sectional survey of resin-modified glass ionomer as dental restoration in Saudi Arabia p. 151
Mashhour Abdullah Almutairi, Amr Saad, El Homossany Mahmoud, Bassem Abuzenada
Introduction: Resin-modified glass ionomers (RMGI) were developed to improve the properties of glass ionomer cement. Aim: The objective is to assess the knowledge of dentists in Saudi Arabia about properties, uses, and manipulation of resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI). Materials and Methods: An online questionnaire of 13 close-ended questions was disseminated on the internet. The survey investigated the preference for usage, cavity treatment, and both dentists' and patients' expectations. Results and Discussion: One hundred and thirty dentists have participated; and more than 99% are using RMGI occasionally with specific cases. The most common clinical use was found to be in cases of root caries and as a temporary filling material (84.6% and 61.5%, respectively). The most noticeable advantage was the fluoride release. However, the most undesirable disadvantage was the inferior esthetic compared to composite resin. It has also shown an average expectation regarding the retention, wear resistance, contouring, handling, and esthetics. Conclusion: Dentists had a good knowledge about the fluoride release ability of RMGI; however, most of the participating dentists were concerned about the esthetic and the handling of RMGI, and rarely use dentin conditioning and adhesive before RMGI placement.
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Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding artificial intelligence in histopathology: A cross-sectional study among oral pathologists in India p. 157
M Indu, Vidya Gurram Shankar, Latha Mary Cherian, Revathi Krishna, Sabu Paul, Pradeesh Sathyan
Introduction: The era of artificial intelligence (AI) has dawned, and its influence on different aspects of our lives is now tremendously evident. The introduction of whole slide imaging in digital pathology has changed the face of histopathology (HP) and is in the process of paving a smooth platform towards the far-reaching telepathology. Aim: The present study was aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of Oral Pathologists (OPs) in India regarding the incorporation of AI in diagnostic HP. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among OPs across India. A structured online questionnaire comprising 27 questions was sent to each participant through email and social media platforms and responses were collected and analyzed. The relationship between demographic variables and good KAP was analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher's exact test. Results and Discussion: One hundred and seventy-one OPs participated in the study, with 8.8% having good knowledge, 70.2% having a positive attitude, and only 4.1% using AI in diagnostic HP. Knowledge regarding AI in pathology increased in a statistically significant way (P = 0.001) with respect to years of experience. 43.9% of OPs expect AI to be integrated into HP in India over the next ten years. Conclusion: OPs in India have a positive attitude towards the incorporation of AI in their pathology practice. Vital measures to enable the integration of AI into diagnostic HP and to improve its awareness are an absolute requisite in our scenario.
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The effect of thermocycling on the color stability of high translucency monolithic lithium disilicate and cubic zirconia materials p. 163
Maha Suliman Mezied
Introduction: The color stability and esthetic is an important factor of the long-term clinical success of dental ceramic restorations. However, the impact of thermocycling on the color stability of high translucency monolithic lithium disilicate and cubic zirconia materials is not well known. Aim: To evaluate the effect of thermocycling on the color stability of three types of monolithic cubic zirconia compared with one type of lithium disilicate. Materials and Methods: A Four groups of 10 disc-shaped specimens (10 mm x 1.2 mm) were made from: One brand of lithium disilicate (IPS e.max CAD® HT (E.max)) as a control, and three brands of cubic zirconia (Katana UTML, Cercon XT, and Ceramill Zolid FX UT) as experimental groups. Color analysis of specimens were performed before and after thermocycling by using a Spectrophotometer (Hunterlab, EasyMatch QC. Ver 4.90). Then, same discs were subjected to thermocycling for 10000 cycles. The data was analyzed with one-way ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc test. Data analyses were evaluated at a significance level of P < 0.05. Results and Discussion: Parameters L*, a*, and b* were statistically significant differences before and after AAA among groups (P<0.001). The IPS e.max CAD® HT showed the greatest change in color (ΔE= 2.15±0.24), followed by Cercon XT (ΔE= 1.70±0.22), Ceramill Zolid FX UT (ΔE= 1.44±0.25), and least change in color was Katana UTML (ΔE= 1.41±0.41). The Tukey's post hoc test, showed that the IPS e.max CAD® HT had significant changes when compared to the other materials (P<0.05). Conclusion: The effect of thermocycling on the color stability in this study results were significant effect in the (ΔE) of the four tested materials. The IPS e.max CAD® HT the greatest change in color and the and least change in color was Katana UTML. The color difference was significant within all groups, but changes were not a clinically perceivable.
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Analysis of risk factors and clinical trends in post-COVID oral mucormycosis p. 170
Harpreet Grewal, Rajiv Balachandran, Neha Bhutiani, Kesari Singh, Saurav Bhargava
Introduction: The COVID-associated surge in mucormycosis cases was seen during the middle and latter of 2021. Mucormycosis is a rapidly destructive opportunistic fungal infection causing severe morbidity and mortality. Aim: This study aims to identify the risk factors associated with post-COVID oral mucormycosis and analysis of the observed clinical pattern. Materials and Methods: The current study is a retrospective observational one based on demographics, history, and clinical presentation of 46 patients with dental referrals for mucormycosis admitted at the COVID-19 designated facility during the ferocious second wave of COVID-19 in India. Results and Discussion: The incidence of post-COVID mucormycosis was found to be higher in males (29) than females (17), with an average age of 54.5 years in males and 50.8 years in females. All patients belonged to poor/lower socioeconomic backgrounds with a history of hypertension (barring four patients), Type 2 diabetes mellitus, poor oral hygiene, and compromised periodontal health. The right maxilla showed the greatest incidence. The median size of the lesion was found to be 2.22 cm2 with an interquartile range of 1.135 cm2 to 3.2 cm2. Conclusion: The vulnerability of COVID-19 patients to the development of oral mucormycosis was found to be higher for patients with preexisting diabetes mellitus, hypertension, poor socioeconomic background, poor oral hygiene, and periodontal health with greater incidence in maxilla and predilection for the right side.
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Comparative evaluation of the fracture resistance of roots after the application of three different root canal sealers: AH Plus, MTA Fillapex, and BioRoot RCS: An in vitro study p. 175
Aparna V Muraleedhar, Sarvapelli Venkata Satish, Roshan Uthappa, Ashwini M Patil, Basavana Gowda
Introduction: Root canal fillings using Gutta-percha and root canal sealers are considered the gold standard in endodontics. Bondable root canal sealers help in strengthening the root by penetrating into the dentin. Aim: The aim was to compare and evaluate the fracture resistance of root dentin following the application of AH Plus sealer, MTA Fillapex sealer, and BioRoot RCS sealer. Materials and Methods: Decoronation was performed on 70 extracted single-rooted premolars at the cementoenamel junction. The samples were divided into three experimental and two control groups. Fourteen samples served as the negative control (Group 4), which were left unprepared. The remaining 56 samples were prepared with ProTaper rotary files up to F3. The roots were obturated using cold lateral compaction using Gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer (Group 1), MTA Fillapex (Group 2), and BioRoot RCS (Group 3). Group 5 served as the positive control group. A universal testing machine was used to compress the samples until fracture occurred. One-way analysis of variance with post hoc Tukey's test was used to analyze the data. Results and Discussion: The highest resistance to fracture was shown by Group 4 (negative control), followed by Group 1 (AH Plus), Group 3 (BioRoot RCS), Group 2 (MTA Fillapex), and the least by Group 5 (positive control). There was a statistically significant difference between all the groups (P = 0.00) except between AH Plus and BioRoot RCS (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Samples in all the groups fractured when vertical force was applied. The maximum resistance to fracture was shown by the roots which were neither instrumented nor obturated. AH plus sealer showed the highest resistance to fracture among the three experimental groups, followed by BioRoot RCS and MTA Fillapex.
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Comparison of the London Atlas method with Cameriere's method of age estimation in South Indian children p. 180
Faizal C Peedikayil, Sruthi Chandran, Soni Kottayi, Aparna T Purakkal, Athira Aravind, Seena John
Introduction: Age estimation is an essential component of forensic science where age is a factor. Dental age is regarded as a reliable, simple, and quick method of determining age in children. The London Atlas of human tooth development and eruption is a recently proposed age estimation method. Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the accuracy of the London Atlas of tooth Development with Cameriere's method of age estimation in relation to chronological age. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs of 200 healthy individuals between 5 and 15 years were assessed using the simple sampling method. The chronological ages were recorded based on the data on the medical records. The data obtained were analyzed using the SPSS software version 22.0 and expressed in terms of mean and standard deviation. Results and Discussion: The results show that there is no statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) between the data were obtained for London Atlas age estimation and Cameriere's method. The London Atlas method is easier in calculating as it is a software-based program. Conclusions: The London atlas method of age estimation is an accurate method of age estimation in the South Indian population.
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A comparative clinical evaluation of plaque removal efficacy of a chewable toothpaste tablet with conventional toothpaste in children – A randomized clinical trial p. 185
Shital Kiran Davangere Padmanabh, Mavaddah Makhiya, Vinay Mulchandani, Vikram Jhamb, Malay Trivedi, Mira Jani Upendrabhai
Introduction: One of the most important causative factors in the onset of dental caries and periodontal disorders is dental plaque. Mouthwashes and dentifrices, such as toothpaste, are examples of chemical plaque management treatments. Toothpaste is the most widely utilized oral health preventive measure. Dentifrices containing 950 PPM of fluoride have recently been developed as tablets. Tablets are a promising substitute for toothpaste. Aim: This study aimed to compare the plaque removal efficacy of a novel chewable toothpaste tablet and a traditional toothpaste in children aged 6–12 years old. Materials and Methods: A total of 128 children aged 6–12 years old were randomly split into two equal groups, with 64 subjects were given chewable toothpaste tablets and the other 64 received conventional toothpaste. The efficacy of a novel chewable toothpaste tablet with traditional toothpaste was compared, and the modified plaque index was measured at baseline at 0 weeks and after 4 weeks. Results and Discussion: A total of 127 children were evaluated out of a total of 128. Between baseline and 4 weeks, there was a statistically significant difference in mean plaque scores within groups (P = 0.001). At 4 weeks, there was a statistically significant difference (P = 0.001) between the chewable tablet and toothpaste groups. Conclusion: Due to the convenience of use for children and the unique type of toothpaste, chewable toothpaste tablets show a higher efficacy of plaque removal than conventional toothpaste. A chewable toothpaste tablet could be a viable alternative to conventional toothpaste for children's oral health.
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Interdisciplinary approach of orthognathic surgery and prosthodontics for the treatment of jaw discrepancies: A report of four cases p. 190
Rayan Sharka, Mohammed Alamar, Yousef Alhaider, Fahad Albakri, Yousef Ezzat
Nonsurgical orthodontic treatment is a choice for many cases of teeth malalignment, especially with the advances in orthodontic treatment. However, orthognathic surgery is sometimes recommended in cases with severe malocclusion, in patients with congenital disabilities, to treat patients with sleep apnea and for adding spaces for dental implants. Besides, it can be considered in patients with esthetic issues that need prosthodontic and restorative work. This paper aimed to show how involving a proper treatment plan using orthognathic surgery when patients required prosthodontic reconstruction maximized results and patient satisfaction compared with prosthetic reconstructions alone or with nonsurgical orthodontic treatment. The authors reported that four patients required prosthetic treatment. Each case had its own set of unique circumstances and challenges. The report showed the difference in treating these cases using nonsurgical orthodontic treatment or orthognathic surgery. Orthognathic surgery was indicated for the last reported case, showing a successful treatment and the patient reporting a high satisfaction level. Orthognathic surgery fastens and maximizes the result and satisfaction of cases with severe jaw discrepancies compared to prosthodontics alone or with nonsurgical orthodontic treatment. However, a proper treatment plan and work in a multidisciplinary team are required.
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Prosthetic management of resorbed ridges through fabrication of hollow denture using three-dimensional glycerin spacer and neutral zone technique p. 198
Manu Rathee, Sujata Chahal, Prachi Jain, S Divakar, Sandeep Singh, Sarthak Singh Tomar
Residual ridge resorption leads to diminished retention, support, and stability of the prosthesis due to decrease in the denture supporting areas, decreased denture space, and increased leverage due to increase inter-ridge distance. The prosthetic rehabilitation of the severely resorbed ridges needs modification for the fabrication of a stable prosthesis. This clinical report describes the prosthetic management of resorbed ridges using modified impression technique, neutral zone technique, external impressions, and fabrication of a hollow denture using three-dimensional glycerin spacer to enhance the retention and stability of the prosthesis.
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Benign cementoblastoma of posterior mandible in growing patient p. 202
Santoshni Samal, Diljith Rishi
Cementoblastoma is a benign tumor of odontoblastic origin usually associated with pain and swelling and mainly occurs in the mandibular region. It is mainly associated with the roots of premolars and molars in the second and third decades of life. This case describes cementoblastoma in a growing affected person, where its diagnosis and intervention are explained in a 16-year-old male. Cementoblastoma is not so common in pediatric patient. This case reports describe a young growing patient where it is surgically treated keeping this in mind so that it will not affect future growth.
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Mandibular actinomyces osteomyelitis p. 205
Bistra Blagova, Lina Malinova, Vesela Ivanova
Actinomycosis caused by the Actinomyces genus can affect both soft and bone tissues. Its diagnosis depends on positive culture or identification of Actinomyces colonies and sulfur granules in histological specimens. This article aims to report a clinical case of actinomycosis in the mandible. The diagnosis of actinomycosis osteomyelitis was confirmed by bone biopsy in a female with a long-standing history of generalized periodontal disease. She underwent debridement of necrotic tissue in the region, and the material was sent for histopathological analysis, which revealed chronic localized actinomycosis osteomyelitis. The patient responded well to prompt systemic antibiotics and local surgical measures with complete resolution of the infection. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of actinomycosis arising in generalized periodontal disease and the importance of bone biopsies and cultures in arriving at a definitive and timely diagnosis. The accurate diagnosis of actinomycosis is crucial for the successful treatment outcome.
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